January 7, 2012

Tuberculosis kills around 1,000 people a day in India. But now it has acquired an even more deadlier form called Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB )

Totally Drug Resistant TB Facts,TDR-TB Facts, Causes Remedies

Spread of Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB )

  • TDR-TB was reported three years ago in Teheran, the Iranian capital, when 15 patients were found to have bacilli resistant to all first- and second-line drugs. 
  • India seems to be only the second country to report Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB) . 
  • Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB )-has been isolated in the fluid samples of 12 TB patients in the past three months alone at Hinduja Hospital at Mahim . 
  • 10 of the 12 TDR-TB cases are from the Mumbai, other two are patients from Ratnagiri and UP. 
  • One of the 12 patients has since died. 

What is Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB): Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB) Characteristics

  • Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB) is the result of the latest mutation of the bacilli after Multi-Drug-Resistant TB (MDR-TB ) and Extremely Drug-Resistant TB (XDR-TB ) were diagnozed earlier. 
  • Among tuberculosis patients, drug resistance develops mainly because patients fail to complete the 6- to 9-month first treatment phase. They feel better within a couple of months of taking the drugs and so they stop taking them. However, the TB germs in the body are not completely vanquished and they again multiply," said a senior BMC public health official. 
  • Left untreated, each person with active TB can infect 10 to 15 people a year since TB is a contagious disease. 
  • Like the common cold, TB spreads through the air 
  • Patients resistant to all first-line and second-line drugs are classified as having Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB ) 
  • None of the known TB combination drugs work on the patient of Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB). 
  • The average age of the 12 patients - six men and six women - is just 32.3 years. 
  • Minimum period of suffering has been two years although one patient is ill for over five years. 
  • Each of the 12 patients was resistant to all first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin , ethambutol, pyrazinamide and streptomycin) and second-line drugs (ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, kanamycin, amikacin, capreomycin, paraaminosalicylic acid and ethionamide ) that were tested. 

Multi-Drug-Resistant TB (MDR-TB ) Facts

  • A particularly dangerous form of drug-resistant TB is Multi-Drug-Resistant TB (MDR-TB ).
  • Multi-Drug-Resistant TB (MDR-TB ) is caused by bacilli resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful anti-TB drugs 
  • India reportedly has the highest burden of MDRTB , with some estimates pegging it at 3 lakh. 
  • Barely 1% are covered by the govt's free drug plan 
  • Drug-resistant TB requires chemotherapy with second-line anti-TB drugs that are costlier than first-line drugs, and which produce reactions that are more severe, though manageable 
  • MDR-TB treatment continues for 24 to 27 months and could cost up to Rs 2 lakh 

Extremely Drug-Resistant TB (XDR-TB ) & Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB ) Facts 

  • The emergence of Extremely Drug-Resistant TB (XDR-TB ), particularly in settings where many TB patients are also infected with HIV, poses a serious threat to TB control. 
  • The patient is resistant to one more drug Patients resistant to all 1st-line and 2nd-line drugs are classified as having Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB ) 

TB Spread & Causes

  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease. 
  • Like the common cold, it spreads through the air. It can affect any part of the body, but only people with TB in their lungs are infectious 
  • When infectious people cough, sneeze, talk or spit, they spread TB germs, known as bacilli, into the air. 
  • A person needs only to inhale a small number of these to be infected 
  • People infected with TB bacilli will not necessarily become sick. The immune system 'walls off' TB bacilli, which, protected by a thick waxy coat, can lie dormant for years. When the immune system is weakened, the chances of becoming sick are greater 
  • Left untreated, a person with active TB can infect 10 to 15 people a year 
  • Overall, a third of the world is infected with the TB bacillus, but not all are sick 5 to 10% of people infected with the TB bacilli (but who are not infected with HIV) become sick or infectious at some time in their life. 
  • People with HIV and TB infections are more likely to develop TB 

Forms & Evolution of tuberculosis (TB)

  • Multi-Drug-Resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB ) emerged in 1992 
  • Extremely Drug-Resistant TB (XDR-TB ) arrived a few years ago
  • The new, deadlier form is Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB ). 

Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB) Causes

Drug-resistant TB can be caused by: 

  • inconsistent or partial treatment
  • when patients do not take all medicines regularly for the required period because they start to feel better
  • because doctors and health workers prescribe the wrong treatment regimens
  • because the drug supply is unreliable 

World & India TB deaths & statistics

 

  • An estimated 1.7 million people died from TB worldwide in 2009 
  • India sees around 3- 4 lakh deaths for all forms of TB each year, while the world saw 1.7 million deaths in 2009. 
  • TB is one of the biggest killers in India, along with heart attack. 
  • Tuberculosis is one of the most fatal diseases in Mumbai, accounting for nearly 15% (8,953) of the deaths in 2010 
  • It is believed that more than half the city's TB patients seek treatment in the private sector 

 

1 comment:

  1. The spineless media in India should stop being naiive and show responsibility in how to report these alleged totally drug resistant tuberculosis truthfully- and inform the people how many of these totally drug resistant TB cases had co-existing AIDS (HIV Infection).

    It is this disgusting DENIAL IN THE INDIAN SOCIETY where every PROBLEM IS SHROUDED IN MYSTERY AND HIDDEN UNDER THE CARPET- A REFLECTION OF THE FACT THAT INDIA IS ALREADY INFECTED BY THE AIDS OF CORRUPTION AND THEREFORE ALL CORRUPT INDIANS ARE WALKING ON THE PATH OF DOOM, DESTRUCTION AND DEATH DUE TO THEIR OWN DENIAL OF THE TRUTH.

    When there is a problem, INDIANS HAVE NEVER TRIED TO ADDRESS IT AND FIND A SOLUTION TRUTHFULLY BUT FIND BLAME IN OTHER FACTORS AND ACT HELPLESS- LOOK AT THE GANGRENOUS CORRUPTION WITHIN EVERY CREATURE IN INDIAN SOCIETY WHICH IS TOTALLY RESISTANT TO ANY SUGGESTED REMEDY- THIS IS WORST THAN ANY AIDS OR TUBERCULOSIS...FOOLS ARE DESTINED TO DISINTEGRATE AND PERISH.

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